Ladle Metallurgy: Process Description

Vaccuum Degassing
Courtesy of U.S. Steel

Equipment
Combustion Technology
Energy Consumption
Process Description
R&D Trends

After tapping from a BOP or EAF, molten steel for high quality or specialty applications is subjected to further refining in a number of alternative processes collectively known as ladle metallurgy, ladle refining, or secondary steelmaking. The objectives of these processes are:Glossary

Deoxidization – Removal of Oxygen

Degassing – Removal of Hydrogen

Desulfurization – To sulfur concentrations as low as 0.002%

Microcleanliness – Removal of undesirable nonmetallic elements

Inclusion morphology – Changing the composition of remaining impurities to improve the microstructure of the steel

Mechanical properties – Increases toughness, ductility, and transverse properties