Integrated Mill Business Structure |

Iron and Steel Overview: Integrated Mill Business Structure


Integrated steel mills produce steel from iron ore, coal, and lime, and typically supply a full range of products, with an emphasis on flat-rolled carbon steel, strip, and plate products. The capacity of integrated steel plants ranges from two million tons to four million tons per mill per year. Twenty years ago, there were 50 integrated steel mills in the United States; today, there are only 23, as shown in the list below. Most of these mills are located in the Great Lakes region of the country. U.S. Steel, Bethlehem, LTV, and Inland Steel all have sales exceeding one billion dollars per year in spite of down-sizing and restructuring. Other names such as Republic, Jones & Laughlin, and Youngstown have all disappeared from the scene spinning off independent mills, closing down, or merging to form a new major producer (LTV).

The 23 remaining steel mills in the United States:

  • AK Steel, Ashland, OH (Linked to Middletown)
  • AK Steel, Middletown, OH (Joint with Kawasaki)
  • Bethlehem, Bethlehem, PA
  • Bethlehem, Burns Harbor, IN
  • Bethlehem, Sparrows Point, MD
  • Geneva Steel, Geneva, UT
  • Georgetown, Georgetown, SC*
  • Gulf States, Gadsden, AL
  • Inland, Indiana Harbor, IN
  • Interlake, S. Chicago, IL
  • LTV/Cleveland, Cleveland, OH
  • LTV/Ind. Harbor, Ind. Harbor, IN
  • McLouth, Detroit, MI
  • National, Granite City, IL (Principal owner NKK)
  • National, Great Lakes, MI (Principal owner NKK)
  • Rouge Steel, Rouge, MI
  • U.S. Steel, Edgar Thomson, PA
  • U.S. Steel, Fairfield, AL
  • U.S. Steel, Gary, IN
  • USS/Kobe joint venture, Lorain, OH
  • WCI Steel, Warren, OH
  • Weirton Steel, Weirton, WVa
  • Wheeling-Pittsburg, Steubenville, OH
  • *Integrated via direct reduction



Tons – On this website, short tons (2000lbs) are used throughout, not metric tonnes (2200lbs), a commonly used measure internationally.


Hogan, W.T., “Steel in the 21st Century, Lexington Books, New York, 1994.

“Earning of largest Mills up 400% from 1993”, Iron and Steel Engineer, April, 1995.